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  • 医院ICU重症监护洁净室设计
    来源:http://www.drdemento.net 浏览: 发布日期:2021-11-10
    医院ICU洁净室又分综合ICU和专科ICU(如烧伤ICU心血管外科ICU新生儿ICU等)。CCU是专科ICU中的一种,个C是冠心病Coronary heart disease的缩写,是专门对重症冠心病而设的。
    Hospital ICU clean room is divided into comprehensive ICU and specialized ICU (such as burn ICU, Cardiovascular Surgery ICU, neonatal ICU, etc.). CCU is a kind of specialized ICU. The first C is the abbreviation of coronary heart disease, which is specially set up for severe coronary heart disease.
    主要收治对象是:①严重创伤大手术后及必须对生命指标进行连续严密监测和支持者;②需要心肺复苏的患者;③脏器(包括心脑肺肝肾)功能衰竭或多脏器衰竭者;④重症休克败血症及中毒病人;⑤脏器移植前后需监护和加强治疗者。病情好转后,又转回普通病房。
    The main patients were: ① after severe trauma and major surgery, life indicators must be continuously and closely monitored and monitored; ② Patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ③ Organ (including heart, brain, lung, liver and kidney) failure or multiple organ failure; ④ Patients with severe shock, sepsis and poisoning; ⑤ Those who need monitoring and strengthening treatment before and after organ transplantation. After his condition improved, he returned to the general ward.
    病房设备:ICU设有中心监护站,直接观察所有监护的病床。每床位的占地面积为15~18㎡,床位间用玻璃或布帘相隔。ICU的设备必须配有床边监护仪中心监护仪多功能呼吸治疗机麻醉机心电图机除颤仪起搏器输液泵微量注射器处于备用状态的吸氧装置气管插管及气管切开所需急救器材。在条件较好的医院,还配有血气分析仪微型电子计算机脑电图机B超机床旁X线机血液透析器动脉内气囊反搏器血尿常规分析仪血液生化分析仪等。
    Ward equipment: ICU is equipped with a central monitoring station to directly observe all monitored beds. The floor area of each bed is 15 ~ 18 ㎡, and the beds are separated by glass or cloth curtain. The equipment of ICU must be equipped with bedside monitor, central monitor, multifunctional respiratory therapy machine, anesthesia machine, ECG machine, defibrillator, pacemaker, infusion pump, micro syringe, oxygen inhalation device in standby state, first-aid equipment for endotracheal intubation and tracheotomy. Hospitals with better conditions are also equipped with blood gas analyzer, microcomputer EEG machine, B-ultrasound machine tool, X-ray machine, blood dialyzer, intra-arterial air bag counterpulsator, hematuria routine analyzer, blood biochemical analyzer, etc.
    此外,重症医学及急诊学中还有小儿重症监护病房(PICU);新生儿重症监护病房(NICU);内科重症监护病房(MICU);心血管重症监护病房(CCU);心脏外科重症监护病房(CICU);急诊重症监护病房(EICU)神经外科重症监护( Neurosurgical intensive care unit,NSICU) 。
    In addition, there is a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in intensive medicine and emergency medicine; Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); Medical intensive care unit (MICU); Cardiovascular intensive care unit (CCU); Cardiac surgery intensive care unit (CICU); Neurosurgical intensive care unit (nsicu) in emergency intensive care unit (EICU).
    重症监护室建设要求:
    Construction requirements of intensive care unit:
    医院ICU洁净室的病床数量一般按全院总床位的3~5%为宜设置,每个ICU 管理单元以8到12张床位为宜;床位使用率以65~75%为宜。
    The number of beds in the clean room of ICU should be 3 ~ 5% of the total beds of the hospital, and 8 ~ 12 beds should be set for each ICU management unit; The utilization rate of beds should be 65 ~ 75%.
    地理位置选择上方便患者转运检查和治疗的区域,并考虑以下因素:接近主要服务对象病区手术室影像学科化验室和血库等,在横向无法实现“接近”时,应该考虑楼上楼下的纵向“接近”。
    In terms of geographical location, select an area convenient for patient transfer, examination and treatment, and consider the following factors: close to the main service object, operating room, imaging discipline, laboratory and blood bank, which cannot be realized horizontally &amp; ldquo; Approach &amp; rdquo; When, consider the vertical &amp; ldquo; Approach &amp; rdquo;.
    ICU开放式病床每床的占地面积为15~18M2;每个ICU更少配备一个单间病房,面积为18~25M2。每个ICU中的正压和负压隔离病房的设立,通常配备负压隔离病房1~2间。
    The floor area of each open bed in ICU is 15 ~ 18m2; Each ICU shall be equipped with at least one single ward with an area of 18 ~ 25m2. The establishment of positive pressure and negative pressure isolation wards in each ICU is usually equipped with 1 ~ 2 negative pressure isolation wards.
    ICU的基本辅助用房包括医师办公室主任办公室工作人员休息室工作站治疗室配药室仪器室更衣室清洁室污废物处理室值班室盥洗室等。有条件的ICU可配置其他辅助用房,包括示教室家属接待室实验室营养准备室等。辅助用房面积与病房面积之比应达到1.5:1以上。
    层流手术室装修
    The basic auxiliary rooms of ICU include doctor's office, director's office, staff lounge, central workstation, treatment room, dispensing room, instrument room, dressing room, cleaning room, waste disposal room, duty room, toilet, etc. Conditional ICU can be equipped with other auxiliary rooms, including classroom, family reception room, laboratory nutrition preparation room, etc. The ratio of auxiliary room area to ward area shall be more than 1.5:1.
    ICU的整体布局应该使放置病床的医疗区域医疗辅助用房区域污物处理区域和医务人员生活辅助用房区域等有相对的独立性,以减少彼此之间的互相干扰并有利于感染的控制。
    The overall layout of ICU should make the medical area where hospital beds are placed, the area of medical auxiliary room, the sewage treatment area and the area of medical personnel living auxiliary room relatively independent, so as to reduce mutual interference and facilitate the control of infection.
    医院ICU洁净室应具备良好的通风采光条件,有条件者更好装配气流方向从上到下的空气净化系统,能独立控制室内的温度和湿度。医疗区域内的温度应维持在(24±1.5)℃左右。每个单间的空气调节系统应该独立控制。安装足够的感应式手设施和手部消毒装置,单间每床1套,开放式病床至少每2床1套。
    The ICU clean room of the hospital shall have good ventilation and lighting conditions. If possible, it is best to install an air purification system with air flow direction from top to bottom, which can independently control the temperature and humidity in the room. The temperature in the medical area shall be maintained at about (24 &amp; plusmn; 1.5) ℃. The air conditioning system of each single room shall be controlled independently. Sufficient inductive hand facilities and hand disinfection devices shall be installed, with one set for each bed in a single room and at least one set for each two beds in an open hospital bed.
    ICU要控制好人流和物流要有合理的包括人员流动和物流在内的医疗流向,更好通过不同的进出通道实现,以限度减少各种干扰和交叉感染。
    ICU should control the flow of good people and logistics, and have a reasonable medical flow including personnel flow and logistics, which is best realized through different access channels, so as to minimize all kinds of interference and cross infection.
    ICU病房建筑装饰必须遵循不产尘不积尘耐腐蚀防潮防霉防静电容易清洁和符合防火要求的总原则。
    The building decoration of ICU ward must follow the general principle of no dust generation, no dust accumulation, corrosion resistance, moisture resistance, mildew and static electricity, easy cleaning and meeting the fire protection requirements.
    ICU的设计要求应该满足提供医护人员便利的观察条件和在必要时尽快接触病人的通道。
    The ICU should be designed to provide convenient observation conditions for medical staff and access to patients as soon as necessary.
    ICU病房应安静除了患者的呼叫信号监护仪器的报警声外,电话铃声打印机等仪器发出的声音等均属于ICU的噪音。在不影响正常工作的情况下,这些声音应尽可能减少到更小的水平。根据噪音协会的建议,ICU白天的噪音更好不要超过45分贝(A),傍晚40分贝(A),夜晚20分贝(A)。地面覆盖物墙壁和天花板应该尽量采用高吸音的建筑材料。
    The ICU ward should be quiet. In addition to the call signal of patients and the alarm sound of monitoring instruments, the sound emitted by telephone ringtones, printers and other instruments belong to the noise of ICU. Without affecting normal operation, these sounds shall be reduced to the minimum level as far as possible. According to the recommendations of the international noise Association, the noise in ICU should not exceed 45 dB (a) during the day, 40 dB (a) in the evening and 20 dB (a) at night. Floor coverings, walls and ceilings should use high sound-absorbing building materials as far as possible.

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