医院ICU洁净室又分综合ICU和专科ICU(如烧伤ICU心血管外科ICU新生儿ICU等)。CCU是专科ICU中的一种，个C是冠心病Coronary heart disease的缩写，是专门对重症冠心病而设的。
Hospital ICU clean room is divided into comprehensive ICU and specialized ICU (such as burn ICU, Cardiovascular Surgery ICU, neonatal ICU, etc.). CCU is a kind of specialized ICU. The first C is the abbreviation of coronary heart disease, which is specially set up for severe coronary heart disease.
The main patients were: ① after severe trauma and major surgery, life indicators must be continuously and closely monitored and monitored; ② Patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ③ Organ (including heart, brain, lung, liver and kidney) failure or multiple organ failure; ④ Patients with severe shock, sepsis and poisoning; ⑤ Those who need monitoring and strengthening treatment before and after organ transplantation. After his condition improved, he returned to the general ward.
Ward equipment: ICU is equipped with a central monitoring station to directly observe all monitored beds. The floor area of each bed is 15 ~ 18 ㎡, and the beds are separated by glass or cloth curtain. The equipment of ICU must be equipped with bedside monitor, central monitor, multifunctional respiratory therapy machine, anesthesia machine, ECG machine, defibrillator, pacemaker, infusion pump, micro syringe, oxygen inhalation device in standby state, first-aid equipment for endotracheal intubation and tracheotomy. Hospitals with better conditions are also equipped with blood gas analyzer, microcomputer EEG machine, B-ultrasound machine tool, X-ray machine, blood dialyzer, intra-arterial air bag counterpulsator, hematuria routine analyzer, blood biochemical analyzer, etc.
此外，重症医学及急诊学中还有小儿重症监护病房（PICU）；新生儿重症监护病房（NICU）；内科重症监护病房（MICU）；心血管重症监护病房（CCU）；心脏外科重症监护病房（CICU）；急诊重症监护病房（EICU）神经外科重症监护( Neurosurgical intensive care unit，NSICU) 。
In addition, there is a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in intensive medicine and emergency medicine; Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); Medical intensive care unit (MICU); Cardiovascular intensive care unit (CCU); Cardiac surgery intensive care unit (CICU); Neurosurgical intensive care unit (nsicu) in emergency intensive care unit (EICU).
Construction requirements of intensive care unit:
The number of beds in the clean room of ICU should be 3 ~ 5% of the total beds of the hospital, and 8 ~ 12 beds should be set for each ICU management unit; The utilization rate of beds should be 65 ~ 75%.
In terms of geographical location, select an area convenient for patient transfer, examination and treatment, and consider the following factors: close to the main service object, operating room, imaging discipline, laboratory and blood bank, which cannot be realized horizontally & ldquo; Approach & rdquo; When, consider the vertical & ldquo; Approach & rdquo;.
The floor area of each open bed in ICU is 15 ~ 18m2; Each ICU shall be equipped with at least one single ward with an area of 18 ~ 25m2. The establishment of positive pressure and negative pressure isolation wards in each ICU is usually equipped with 1 ~ 2 negative pressure isolation wards.
The basic auxiliary rooms of ICU include doctor's office, director's office, staff lounge, central workstation, treatment room, dispensing room, instrument room, dressing room, cleaning room, waste disposal room, duty room, toilet, etc. Conditional ICU can be equipped with other auxiliary rooms, including classroom, family reception room, laboratory nutrition preparation room, etc. The ratio of auxiliary room area to ward area shall be more than 1.5:1.
The overall layout of ICU should make the medical area where hospital beds are placed, the area of medical auxiliary room, the sewage treatment area and the area of medical personnel living auxiliary room relatively independent, so as to reduce mutual interference and facilitate the control of infection.
The ICU clean room of the hospital shall have good ventilation and lighting conditions. If possible, it is best to install an air purification system with air flow direction from top to bottom, which can independently control the temperature and humidity in the room. The temperature in the medical area shall be maintained at about (24 & plusmn; 1.5) ℃. The air conditioning system of each single room shall be controlled independently. Sufficient inductive hand facilities and hand disinfection devices shall be installed, with one set for each bed in a single room and at least one set for each two beds in an open hospital bed.
ICU should control the flow of good people and logistics, and have a reasonable medical flow including personnel flow and logistics, which is best realized through different access channels, so as to minimize all kinds of interference and cross infection.
The building decoration of ICU ward must follow the general principle of no dust generation, no dust accumulation, corrosion resistance, moisture resistance, mildew and static electricity, easy cleaning and meeting the fire protection requirements.
The ICU should be designed to provide convenient observation conditions for medical staff and access to patients as soon as necessary.
The ICU ward should be quiet. In addition to the call signal of patients and the alarm sound of monitoring instruments, the sound emitted by telephone ringtones, printers and other instruments belong to the noise of ICU. Without affecting normal operation, these sounds shall be reduced to the minimum level as far as possible. According to the recommendations of the international noise Association, the noise in ICU should not exceed 45 dB (a) during the day, 40 dB (a) in the evening and 20 dB (a) at night. Floor coverings, walls and ceilings should use high sound-absorbing building materials as far as possible.